INDIAN HEALTH CARE SYSTEM

Healthcare system in India has mixed, inclusive of public and private health-care service providers.

The public health-care infrastructure in rural areas has been developed as a three-tier system based on the population norms and described below.

Indian health care system has a three-tier healthcare system, as under:

 includes PHC( Primary health center), CHC ( community health center), and sub-center
·         These are small hospitals ( or healthcare centers) set-up mostly in small towns and rural areas and managed by the single doctor and ANM (Auxiliary Nursing Midwife ).
·         These centers focus on educating people on issues relating to healthcare and provide immunization facilities against infectious diseases.
·         Preliminary treatment is offered to patients within the manageable limits.

      includes Secondary Healthcare institutions 
These institutions are upgraded ( compared to PHC ) and have facilities for surgery, ECG, and X-rays. They are located in big towns and district headquarters


includes Tertiary Healthcare Centers
·         These are high-end fully equipped medical centers, offering specialized medical facilities.
·         The tertiary sector also includes educational and researches centers such as AIIMS (All India Institute of Medical Science, New Delhi ),
·         PGI (Post Graduate Institute, Chandigarh), and NIMHNS ( National Institute of mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bengaluru).

                   Development of healthcare system after independence   

  There has been a substantial improvement in health facilities after independence    

Following observations prove this point:

1 Rise in expectancy of life: Expectancy of life has risen from 32 years in 1951 to 68.3 years in 2016.

2 Reduction in Infant Mortality Rate:
Infant mortality rate (referring to the death of the infant up to 1 year of age) has significantly reduced from 146 per thousand in 1951 to 34 per thousand in 2016.

3 Control over Deadly Diseases: Deadly diseases like malaria, tuberculosis (TB), smallpox have been brought under control.

4 A decline in under-five mortality rate:         
The under-five mortality rate has declined significantly from 248 per thousand in 1960 to 245 per thousand in 2014. India is set to achieve its millennium development goal(MDG) for under-five mortality by 2017.

5 A decline in death rate:
 Death rate has come down from as high as 27 per thousand in 1951 to 6.4 per thousand in 2016.


 Here, Following are some notable observations:

a      *   The private sector accounts for more than 80 percent of total healthcare spending in India.
*          *Of those seeking treatment, 78 percent rural and 81 percent of urban patients are availing private      non-institutional(out-patient) facilities and 58 percent urban are going to private hospitals.
.       At the time of independence, the private sector in India accounted for only 8 percent of healthcare facilities. But today, 93 percent of hospitals,64 percent of beds, and 80-85 percent of doctors belong to private-sector health infrastructure.
.      The private sector in healthcare has gained a dominant presence in all the sub-market- medical education and training, medical technology and diagnostics, manufacture and sale of pharmaceuticals, hospital construction, and finally, the provision of medical services.

Thus, the private sector has emerged as the dominant source of healthcare service in India. 

Healthcare services are free in India?

India's constitution guarantees free healthcare for all its citizens. All government hospitals are required to provide free of cost healthcare facilities to the patients. Each district headquarters in most states have one or more Government hospitals where everything from diagnosis to medicine is given for free.

Who is fit?
Health means a sound physical and mental state of the individual. It does not simply mean the absence of disease.

Good health implies the following:

1 increase in overall efficiency to handle difficult task,
2 increase in mental abilities.



      Indian healthcare system of medicines  

Indian healthcare systems of medicines are the system of medicines which are considered to be Indian in origin or which have come to India from outside got assimilated into Indian culture.

India has six recognized systems of medicines in this category. These are (AYUSH)-

1 Ayurveda-

the traditional Hindu system of medicine (incorporated in Atharva Veda, the last of the four Vedas), which is based on the idea of balance in bodily systems and uses diet, herbal treatment, and yogic breathing.

2 yoga

 Yoga is an old discipline from India. It is both spiritual and physical. Yoga uses breathing techniques, exercise, and meditation. It helps to improve health and happiness. ... He defined yoga as "the cessation of the modification of the mind"

3 Unani-

Unani medicine is a system of alternative medicine that originated in ancient Greece but is now practiced primarily in India. Involving the use of herbal remedies, dietary practices, and alternative therapies, Unani medicine addresses the prevention and treatment of disease

4 Sidha

Siddha is a comprehensive system that places equal emphasis on the body, mind, and spirit and strives to restore the innate harmony of the individual. Treatment is aimed at restoring balance to the mind-body system. Diet and lifestyle play a major role not only in maintaining health but also in curing diseases.

5 Naturopathy and homeopathy

Naturopathic medicine is a system that uses natural remedies to help the body heal itself. It embraces many therapies, including herbs, massage, acupuncture, exercise, and nutritional counseling. Naturopathy was brought to the United States from Germany in the 1800s, but some of its treatments are centuries old.

Some people have used homeopathy to maintain health and treat a wide range of long-term illnesses, such as allergies, atopic dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and irritable bowel syndrome. They have also used it to treat minor injuries, such as cuts and scrapes and muscle strains or sprains.

As on April 1, 2015, there are 3632 ISM hospitals, 26,325 dispensaries, 58,020 beds, 7,44,563registered practitioners, 544 undergraduate colleges and 170 postgraduate colleges in India




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